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Individual drum lessons from your home, by appointment.

Marc de Douvan

Minimum necessary equipment :

- Internet connection

- Webcam ( with integrated microphone )

- To own a Skype account ( it's free ). Link to create it ( click on it to go to Skype website ) :

- To have a pair of drumsticks and a practice pad ( minimum equipment if you want to play in front of Marc De Douvan , but the course can also be reduced to verbal advices)

Recommended equipment :

- High speed Internet connection (for a “flowing” transmission )

- HD Webcam ( High Definition) and quality microphone ( good webcam also has a better microphone, which may be sufficient if judiciously placed and set ).

- Good lighting (very bright lights and close, otherwise the image is not as good (large grain) and there are fewer frames per second (less clear movement)).

- Quality computer (to avoid delays, desynchronization)

- An acoustic drumset (possibly muffled if the neighbours complain preferable to electronic drums: see my article about this subject here )


When you are provided with the equipment you just need to pay by Paypal (with a Paypal account or just a credit card) by choosing one of the options below.

Upon receipt of payment (immediate with Paypal) , Marc De Douvan will send a contacting email for an appointment depending on availability of each one and to transmit user-names to communicate by Skype.

Note: All options are possible with the 10 hours package , examples: 1 hour per week outside of school holidays, for an entire quarter, or condensed on two days ( intensive course ) 5 hours per day, etc.

Make sure you write correctly your email address ! When in doubt you can anyway contact Marc De Douvan : here.

Prices and payment of private lessons with Marc De Douvan:

16 euros for 30 min lesson

Buy 30 min lesson with Paypal or credit card ( secure payment by Paypal ) : click on the " Buy Now " button below and follow the instructions :

30 euros for one hour lesson

Buy one hour lesson with Paypal or credit card ( secure payment by Paypal ) : click on the " Buy Now " button below and follow the instructions :

270 euros for a package of 10 hours of lessons (=> one hour offered = 10% reduction = 27 euros per hour)

Buy a package of 10 hours of lessons with Paypal or credit card ( secure payment by Paypal ) : click on the " Buy Now " button below and follow the instructions :


: : Introduction:

Education on the basis of two drumset methods edited written by the teacher himself, totalizing 500 pages for all levels and all styles ( published in 2008, more information on the methods here) which the first was awarded "French drum book of the year 2011" by a jury of ten independent drumset teachers, organized by the online specialized bookstore, the first year of creation of this prize, unique of its kind in France .

The private lessons are an opportunity for a fully customized coaching ( individual lessons ) based not only on musical knowledge (cultural, historical, technical) extremely updated (study, analysis and personal synthesis of the best world's educational publishings, from the oldest to latest), but also physiological knowledge, physical sciences, and mathematics ( for an efficiency of reflexes acquisition and optimum endurance) and finally philosophy applied to the art of composition (currently, too many practitioners of music consider music as a common "sport" purely technical and mechanical, and simply play the scores of others, knowing that the professional demands in jazz, latin jazz, rock and even pop (styles inseparable from the modern drumset, with pedals and set of instruments, also known as "batterie de jazz" in France) are absolutly different: improvisation or at least necessary creativity not to mention a sensitive and emotional interpretation inherent in art as well).

With the teaching of Marc De Douvan, the student is certain to learn the most effective basics and technique, to not traumatize his body or restrain his possibilities of expression, but also to develop his artistic skills, thanks to the learning of the History of drumset and its context, as well as mathematics and music theory applied to the drums, while encouraging them to develop his own creativity, not just copy the one of others ( the "copy" will be however sometimes encouraged in the study because it is a way to know in depth, by the practice ), through a dialogue and aesthetic analysis (philosophical) on the remarkable works of history and his own work, and an amount of logical exercises applied to different aspects of the instrument, to develop improvisational skills, with the greatest progressiveness and freedom possible (based on combinatorial mathematics and a physiological study experienced by the author for over 15 years).

The basis of teaching that constitute Marc De Douvan methods is already publicly supported by national and international teachers, authors and musicians the most recognized themselves as Horacio "El Negro " Hernandez, Daniel Humair, Jean-Philippe Fanfant, Marc Cerrone, Bertrand Renaudin or Martial Solal and the specialized press (see the complete list and reviews here). Some concepts of learning (exercises and layout) have already been taken up by recognized authors of international methods (in English) as Benny Greb or John Riley.

These methods present not only a complete approach of the concepts related to the practice of modern drumset but also a logical organization, which can be explained further in tuitions to lead to a reflection on the principles of composition and learning, and a perfect progression to save time ( the objective being to lead as quickly as possible the student to the fun of playing but also an accomplishment and fulfillment, while elevating him in his artistic reflection, not by enclosing him in sclerosing and academic schemas).

You have now the chance to get private lessons with the author in person of these nationally awarded methods, recognized by some great musicians already historical and already widely adopted by many teachers and sold ( already second edition (now bilingual French- English ) of First Steps and presentation in most French music bookshops) from your home, wherever you are in the world , thanks to Skype, a minimal equipment (drums, webcam and internet connection ) and a sinple payment secured by Paypal, without restriction on the level or degree (courses open to beginners ) or rate of courses ( by appointment and without binding commitment over time). So hurry because the schedule of Marc De Douvan is not unlimited and this opportunity will not last maybe.


1 : Work on listening, tempo, rhythmic placement, reading, music analysis , music theory, improvisation :

with the possibility of playing with the professor, a metronome, with attentive judgment of the smallest defects by the professor and the technical and practical means ( "tricks" ) to overcome the specific difficulties of the student ( analysis of the cause of the possible "blockage", critic, advice, tips, explanations, answers to all possible questions of the student ( at their own pace because it is a private lesson and without restriction unless the time limit of the course paid ): Marc De Douvan promises not to avoid any questions about musical practice of the student or music in general, or nourish him with academic and "scholar" non-argued principles (critical thinking behind any truly artistic approach because creative and autonomous).

The extreme progressiveness of the exercises allows in principle everyone to succeed them, even the most difficult because one step after another, without haste and avoiding failure which is a source of discouragement and taking bad reflexes. By proceeding this way, you will paradoxically see much faster progress and this is what is also quite revolutionary in the approach of Marc De Douvan methods, which have been designed as an autodidact for himself first , by starting drumset at 18 years old only and rarely spending more than two hours of training per day. In fact, the acceleration of progress is explained by the fact that several close exercises, following each other in a logical and natural progression will be succeed more quickly than only one with a too high level. We could, to take an image, compare a staircase with steep steps with 20 cm high and a 10 meters high wall or cliff. In the latter case the only way to create a quick and easy accessibility is precisely to create an artificial stairs rather than seeking climbing prowess : it is more generally to transform its environment to make it accessible, rather than to seek again and again to overcome an obstacle in an impossible manner. In the end, the last exercises given in advanced method and practiced by Marc De Douvan, involve a level of difficulty of realization achieved by few people in the world and history, because of the very unnatural aspect they offer ( especially because of polyrhythm ( commonly called "independence" for the drumset) whereas human thought is linear), which is also a specific feature of artistic activity : this is what is commonly called the "virtuoso" approach, which seeks "self-surpassing".

By doing so we kill two birds with one stone, because we memorize and keep more phrases, a bigger "vocabulary" conducive to more improvisation ( because paradoxically, the ability to improvise is increased by the preparation) and even three, because by respecting the natural order, you touch a first understanding of this order ( this is what we may call the mathematical and conceptual approach , which is a very important first approach to composition also especially if you want to keep as many open doors to possibilities; as such, we can say that the mathematical approach is the most free, apparently , because in fact human intuition often leads more easily to sophistications than reasoned approach: this is what the improviser artist also search, by a recombination of the reasoned elements , which can be rational or not besides) .

A Chinese proverb says : "Who wants to climb a mountain , begin at the bottom". Basic common sense not always understood by the most impatient or in contradiction with a school competition environment excluding some members of a community, a " class ": it is a bit what is doing an exam with normative sanction, rather than seek of the progress of each one and serve everyone ( apparently utopian principle which could apply to the entire school system in France and already tested successfully in some countries : the abandonment of "grades" and " tests" which are anyway given by human beings with at least subjective criteria and in my opinion totally arbitrary in the art subjects, even in literature).

2 : Work on the gesture:

a: demonstration by Marc De Douvan, by the example, on a real acoustic drums , in slow motion, with the best possible framing, close-up if necessary, with high-definition video equipment. Descriptive explanation with real scientific terms (physiology , physical sciences, or their correspondence in the musical jargon with scientific terms often perverted) in detail, for a deeper understanding, not just a confident imitation.

b: on the contrary, permanent and careful analysis by Marc De Douvan of the gestural defects of the student because a perfectly efficient reflex (with a shape physically and physiologically appropriate for the final sound result, intended) is quite rarely integrated in few seconds especially if bad reflexes were previously acquired, and it is very difficult in the beginning to "feel" your own gestures, knowing that it is difficult to look yourself playing also. The most immediate examination, continuously, allows to avoid the repetition of very damaging bad habits (involving a big waste of time because you must first get rid of them before to start all over again) .

3 : Work on understanding :

Assurance of student understanding by "testing" questions. There is no question of a grading test, but to ensure permanently and continuously that no lack of understanding disturbs the transmission of knowledge and progress ( students often forget some aspects of "solfège", music notation ( universal writing of music and its terminology ) in early learning for example, it is the role of the teacher to notice them and repeat the information or to explain it differently, to allow to use and memorize them) .

The already very complete text on the website and in the methods of Marc De Douvan is not always sufficient to explain all in the methods, depending on the student's knowledge and misunderstandings are always possible. On the other hand, none better than the author can know what he was intended to explain in his methods and possibly clarify them further by answering student questions. This process of open debate on the reason for each exercise is not just a kind of "clientelist posture" to descend to the level of the student or attempt to submit to his desires, but one of the most sure means to get a beneficial learning because understood and justified and therefore transmissible or understandable for any audience, which is also interesting from a purely artistic point of view ( a piece of art is normally intended for an audience, not necessarily initiated).

In fact this is a "critical posture" that should start from the beginning of an artistic activity, not only after hundreds of hours of servile labor (which I dare then to qualify more stupefying than really formative) under the orders of a teacher, which is then more a process of imprinting, education or even mania (ie the "academist" approach to art which leads to works without great historical interest and which can be dangerously overestimated in the merit of their authors, who are then only poor copyists or "plagiarists" without intelligence) going away from a true work of art, that is to say, creative, thoughtful and open to the “universe of the possibilities” ( this is what distinguishes the artist from the technician in the modern meanings of these words).

In other words, you can spend your life to play the scores of others or to copy them without the need for starting any beginning of truly artistic or understanding of composition mechanisms work, that I offer to approach in my methods for example , and can be completed orally in my courses or even by the student ( even a beginner student can be creative, it would be a waste to restrain or disgust him from it) .

4: Historical illustrations :

Origins of the appearance of the different phrases taught to the student (author, title of the work, or even band, album, date, insertion into a “filiation” (inspiration), influence (inspire which other works), listening, viewing of the work, personal comments, etc.).

It is crucial to insert music in a historical context and therefore cultural but also respect the creators of art, prevent from "making prose without knowing it ", essential preliminary step before attempting to become creative yourself. This is an evidence not always understood by the youngest, who are easily abused by "mode” (“fashion” in French) phenomenas about the real "modernity" (or rather "inventiveness ") of certain very “mediatized” artists, what Marc De Douvan will also demonstrate in each case, if necessary or if requested.

This inventiveness is not exclusive in art, unlike science which tries to find principles and truths. The word "modernity", in a linear sense, of progress, has nothing to do with that used in science or technology. It can be understood in art in a sense of accumulation of art works and knowledge, which it is necessary to know to make different not necessarily better (can we make "better" than the Cheops pyramid, the Eiffel Tower, the Mona Lisa, the Sistine Chapel or Lascaux paintings? absurd question for a teacher of visual arts in France today). In this sense, getting know the "classical" works( in the etymological sense : "first class" ) or the willingness to go away from them in your own work does not involve a "classicism" (" conservatism ", "traditionalism", copy, idolatry of the “ancient”) or "modernism " (" futurism ", destruction, rejection of the “ancient”) .

This type of unnecessarily caricatural opposition ( "extremist"), is well known by philosophers, since the firsts, and shows the stake and the benefit that an artist can get out of a philosophical approach of art (it is not enough to believe yourself to be an artist or be seen by others as an artist, to really be one, and the number of sales or views of a work of art does not guarantee its real success from a qualitative point of view, whose the most objective judgment is undoubtedly the one of great disinterested practitioners, type of judgment generally recognized by art historians themselves: it is to get the "recognition by his peers", principle of judgment recognized in science itself) .

This acquaintance of "classic" art works (modern drumset has over a century of existence and its theoretical foundations are much older) is far from being easy. Having learned at a time when there was no Internet and also a lot recently thanks to the Internet, Marc De Douvan can prevent the student a considerable waste of time in the search of knowledge and references, also not always well transmitted by other authors and teachers (Marc De Douvan did a great job of cross-checking sources, it is not for nothing that his method for advanced level is titled "Return to the Sources") .

Let's insist on the necessary aspect ( not always understood either, especially in the field of music, even by some teachers, because it is an understood evidence in all the visual arts, for example) for a work of art to be creative , in other word original, that is to say making a contribution interesting to the great edifice of art History (excluding borders today) and not just a simple copy or academic interpretation as perfect as it can be, bordering on plagiarism. It is the ultimate goal of any art project worthy of the name, even if the work is labeled "popular" or "elitist" besides (these criterias are absolutely independent). Propagandists, clientelist and cultural objectives have always been as such enemies of art and real artists who seek novelty and not the transmission of "messages " (religious or political propaganda , advertising), an ephemeral fame by means diverted ( "gossipation") or obedience to rules and codes of social recognition and that, even if their works are sometimes "hijacked" and instrumented without their knowledge ( even a museum can be considered as a form of hijacking of art works by an institution, by the selection it induces) . This makes the notion of "national identity" very problematic to accomodate with their activity, as well as "multiculturalism " is a necessity for them. It is rarely said, but you must know what you defend and attack on defending this ideas of another time : multiculturalism does not mean "anti-culturalism" and that is why Marc De Douvan present in these courses, website and methods, on an equal footing ( and therefore without nationalism ), the French culture of percussion, as well as the one of the rest of the world, especially in today's world, that clearly becoming more of Internet. Communication constraints were not the same in the Middle Ages, we could not ask a French artist to know African or American art, but was he not interested to art works produced within his reach to build his art ( works produced in other European countries) ? He was anyway in competition with other artists , which often had the merit to pull the quality up, in art.

This French culture of percussion (military drumming) is paradoxically often little known by French themselves and even some teachers. Yet it is the foundation of jazz drumming (coming from the capital of the former French colonies in the United States, New Orleans and its "Mardi Gras"), rather than the American-British, which demonstrates again the continuous mix that art makes on cultures: should we be upset of it by arguing of a past perfection idealized and frozen (or worse, signs of community recognition that borders on the most primitive tribalism) or be delighted at the inexhaustible creative capacity of the human mind, which the true art is one of the most obvious manifestations?

On the opposite, the use of quotation (with perfect execution, which also shows a listening, memory and analysis talent and a respect for the author) is an effect used for a long time in art (use a tradition does not necessarily imply the "traditionalism", that is to say, an exclusive use of this tradition, without wanting to stray from it). It is quite difficult to make a work composed entirely of new elements, and this would lead to an aesthetic impoverishment and abandonment of the transmission of ancient knowledge by the art works. In addition, a thoughtful composition is based on the managing of emotions of the audience, which can not be constantly under tension, without ending up totally losing his attention. More simple and conventional aspects in the work, create as such quiet moments, contrasting with creative and virtuoso moments.

5: Interactivity of Marc De Douvan methods :

The way that Marc De Douvan methods are built, by a conceptual classification crossed to a classification by level (stars and order), allows to go out of the linear “yoke” of learning steps imposed by most other written methods (with only a level classification, sometimes playing " leapfrog " from a concept to another or tackling only few concepts). In other words, the teacher chooses himself depending on the rate of progression of the student in each musical aspect (independence, alternating, rhythm, polyrhythm, style, improvisation, passages, History, etc.) by what side to continue at each step of the lesson. The student himself can express his desire to approach rather one style or another, or what aspect of his practice to deepen.

Let's however warn students against the taste to repeat what he's already known and familiar for him, which is certainly a pleasant and comfortable approach, but often leads to confinement and low blossoming. As such, students will be encouraged in the course of Marc De Douvan to reinforce "weaknesses", lacks or important misconceptions. Indeed, most great drummers, regardless of their preferred style, master a set of basic techniques that overlap, it's more the frequency of their use, the using proportions in composition, which distinguish one another, of which some known and repeated phrases form the basis of recognition of style ( "basic phrases and basic variations : style " topic discussed at length in method 1).

For the objective of creativity again, it is important to have at least a basic knowledge of all styles and techniques, also knowing that it is an excellent source of inspiration, the mixing of styles being often the basis of creativity in art, especially after millennia of creations "stored" (modern drumset itself is originally a mixed instrument played at the beginning in an extreme culturally mixed country: the United States of America) even if this world repertoire is not always known in detail and in the same way from place to place, or worse, forgotten by society. It is found sometimes some tracks of this lost art, written tracks buried or simple verbal accounts (such as "la batterie d'Austerlitz" ("the Austeritz drumming" 1805) first written by Charles Gourdin, drum major of the Republican Guard, one century after its conception and transmitted orally for several generations). The historical work shows again here its weight in art and many artists of “avant-garde” were inspired by the last discoveries of ancient and exotic art or have made themselves historians researchers ( traveling, collecting foreigners accounts or by analyzing foreign works ( "at the source", especially for cultures with oral transmission or using improvisation), or library research of rare books, or reading books in foreign languages, what Marc De Douvan made himself) .

In fact, the goal in this interactivity is mostly a flexible approach to avoid “blockages” and failures : each approches the same problems in his own way and at his own pace, with his tastes, his sensitivity, his talent more or less pronounced for each aspect, his personality: it is already a first step towards a significant personal creative approach, from an artistic point of view, which it is not desirable to restrain. For this reason, the student does not necessarily have the distance, or points of comparison (knowledge , experience) to estimate his own qualities, his innate talent. The outside view of a wise teacher is very helpful again provided to push the student and encourage him in his qualities and also to point them out, what does not allow any predetermined education, the same for everyone.

To give a comparison, it is almost as if instead of leting the student free to explore a space in three dimensions, a virgin forest, for example, he would be forced not only to run on a track, but Furthermore, with the same obstacles for everyone and preventing him from going further if he does not get over an obstacle (although he could very well succeed to pass the following, not necessarily of the same kind) . The first example is like a walk, exploration, the avant-garde, adaptation, the second, athletics, military training for new recruits, or the final exam for a very standard post, rigidity.

No one can excel in all subjects, this is what denies a linear and unique teaching approach, creating a sort of "mold" or "filter", quite unsuitable for the purpose to make appear the creativity present in everyone, his specific talent.

In essence, a researcher does not know what to find and therefore it is impossible to know and anticipate the talent, the skill needed to find this discovery. This is probably why even recent inventions seem obvious today although they remained buried for millennia and often discovered by accident, by non-specialists or not " trained " (schooled) in the field. In opposite, you can in the "method" of research, try to approach an open attitude, sensitive to creativity and not a premeditated attitude, directive, which tends to reject it. As such, any notion of established, known rule, or "good taste" must be rejected straightaway in an artistic approach. These rules would make a little better alternative than the copy in a type of education called for a long time "academic" in an extremely pejorative meaning in the teaching of visual arts in France (although this is less the case in the teaching of music, it does not justify this approach, which has more than a thousand times demonstrated its sterility) .

6: Inventiveness of the methods :

Marc De Douvan did not just make a choice and a synthesis of known phrases or classify them with an already original and reasoned way, with original explanatory, but has also introduced his own compositional creativity in his methods, of course especially in the advanced level one. His methods are therefore also "works of art " (that is on the opposite a fairly common principle in music methods other than simple "transcriptions" ( "play along" ), pure quotes, which you can not really consider as methods, if they have no further explanation for going beyond the work, do something else : composing is not copy and paste “snippets” of existing works no matter how, it's a matter for an intention and an organization that can also be realised in the moment and by intuition ( improvisation) and be rationalized after (critical choice)) .

7: Inventiveness of tuition:

Nevertheless Marc De Douvan can invent as desire, in the moment (improvise), new additional exercises inspired and adapted to the student in order to solve their specific problems or encourage to go further in his ideas. In other words , in the private lessons, it is about an interactive work for two persons (student and teacher), human, that no scores, written method, frozen video, or collective conference or no self-taught work can replace. Many unwritten extension ( stored in memory) can still be made for the most ambitious students who want to go further than the exercises presented for advanced level ( in the method for advanced level or the end of method for beginners to intermediate level).

8 : Many cross knowledges external to the drumset:

They provide a significant plus of creative inspiration and understanding point of view (comparison, context, explanation):

- Afro-Cuban percussions (basis of Latin-jazz drumset)

- Brazilian percussions (basis of jazz-samba drumset)

- African Percussions (basis of the modern polyrhythmic culture in all styles)

- History and practice of music beyond the drumset (drummers rarely play alone)

- Philosophy of Art (avoid prejudice, forging terminology tools for a discourse on art, learning to demonstrate by your own logic, helped by the teacher, and transmissions of the ideas on art of the greatest philosophers of the past as Socrates, Aristotle, Nietzsche, Hegel or Kant)

- Physiology (anatomy (also field of fine arts), functioning of the body , health, to develop efficiency, endurance, speed, power, finesse, reflexes, resistance (the drumset can be a traumatic instrument), etc.).

- Physical Sciences ( applied to the drumset and practice: mechanics, dynamics , acoustics, etc. applicable to the sounds, the tension of drum skins, the choice of instruments and sticks, the effective control of the body and the instrument, etc. )

- Applied Arts (knowledge in photography, cinema, scenery, sound recording, which help to better adapt to the media of video conferencing or video in general (useful for a musician today too): framing, light, etc . ) .

- History and technique of visual arts ( as an edifying distanced comparison, seeking artistic common features, which shed light on the objectives of art in general).

Before producing a single drum sound, many areas of knowledge are involved.

9: For the students already experienced :

Evaluation of skills and possible "weaknesses" of the student or his assets, to encourage them to grow and help him to find his place in the very privileged and in demand professional world of art, in a worthy and deserved way (by the physical work on dexterity, the acquisition of scientific or cultural knowledge, ingenuity, talent that can also be emotional and perceptual sensitivity or reaction vivacity , imagination, endurance , speed, intuition, etc.) .

The field of musical practice actually gives the opportunity to all human talents to express themselves without limit, which is almost unique, and all this led to a goal of pleasure , personal fulfillment or aesthetic pleasure of an audience. About this last point, the critical eye of an experienced and recognized teacher is very helpful too.

10: For teachers or students already using the Marc De Douvan methods:

Courses with the author are also an opportunity for personal and private "coaching" for teachers or self-taught students who already use Marc De Douvan methods: answers to questions on how to use them, adaptations ideas, practical tips, help in understanding or carrying out the content ( advanced training, "upgrade", especially for the advanced method) .

11 : A quality advice open to everybody:

Marc De Douvan remains open to any kind of tips and questions, as anecdotal as they can be, concerning closely or remotely the drumset. Physical problems related to the drumset, light on the drumset for another instrumentalist, a composer, music theory problem, doubt about his approach to music, his practice, setting or choice of his set, a gesture, a sound, a sound recording, an exercise, a personal composition? These are just few examples where Marc De Douvan may occur occasionally or more permanently with professional or not, with answers always argued or even illustrated by famous players, as he has done it on his website and in his methods .

: : Conclusion:

To conclude this brief overview of the many possibilities that gives private lessons with Marc De Douvan, broaden our perspective by noting that the set of purely artistic activities (of pure aesthetic representation, focused on "beauty") are the only ones which the animal species closest to man known (Neanderthal, now extinct) were not able to accomplish (unlike language, technology, science, religion, and even writing). Considering this factual aspect demonstrated by anthropologists, archaeologists and paleontologists, in the century of copied, scanned , electronic or mechanized music, we can say that the stakes of this non-destructive human specificity (unlike some technologies), far exceed the simple entertainment, leisure, emotional release, propaganda, or other manipulation such as advertising. It's about a certain elevation of mind and personal fulfillment that also builds a form of human dignity , alternative to religious faith, pure or applied science, the search of excessive accumulation of material wealth, power, comfort or purely instinctive pleasure.

Learning an art (if it is not dogmatic) is also a way to develop critical thinking and imagination, beyond the art itself, which is a democratic principle and a mean of inspiration, of solid structuring of the mind, based on the sensitive and intuitive as well as rational observation of nature. Numerous are the scientists and prominent politicians, who have leant on the experience of artistic practice and its teachings (as a "hobby" ), and that many cultures around the world consider essential to human education. It is regrettable that this education is today too much neglected, seen as unnecessary (under a poor argument of exclusive search of work for mere survival, which is the opposite of progress sought by any civilization, especially with use of machines), in modern societies, societies more than ever swamped with pure industrial show, which is paradoxically a form of regression if we place ourselves in the most distanced anthropological perspective. The machines have been developed in order to release man of hard and mechanical works, without intelligence and fun, not to free human from intelligence and pleasure "works" (activities) : it is a serious misinterpretation about the meaning of "civilizational" progress.

Finally, it is obvious that the learning of an art, from within, through practice and theoretical study, significantly expands the ability to appreciate the works of art as a mere spectator : art is not "illusion" (see "Lectures on Aesthetics " of Hegel) .

Marc De Douvan, Angers, December 18, 2013, English translation: January 23, 2014.

© 2005 Marc de Douvan Crédits Mentions légales